The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment

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A brief synopsis about the current experiment:

The idea is:

Experiment 1 (Joylent)

Hypothesis: By reducing my overall sugar consumption, I should see health improvements in my liver enzymes and blood sugar levels.

Before the experiment, I was consuming over 38 grams of sugars a day (Sucrose and High Fructose Corn Syrup)

During the experiment, I was consuming 38 grams of sugars a day (Sucrose and High Fructose Corn Syrup)


18 Syn

Gif so far

*In honor of The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment, enter eathealthlee at the check out (Joylent Website) to save 5% on your order’s total, this can only be redeemed once per account*
The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment

It’s 1Feb2016 and The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment is upon me, for all who do not know what is at stake, I will be consuming solely water, herbal teas and meal replacement shakes from two companies (Joylent and for an entire year. Periodically I will undergo medical testing in the form of blood serum work to see what (if any) positive or adverse effects it has on my body.
Why do something so intense you ask?

I honestly believe that these type of foods are foods of the future. As a nutritional business owner (and current dietetic student) I am bombarded with questions from people about how to lose weight, stay healthy and live great nutrition filled lives. I think the answer to many of our nutritional woes can be found in products like Joylent and Pulve.
How did I become a human guinea pig?

Let’s rewind several months ago to October 2015. After finishing up an appointment with one of my clients, I decided to take a preemptive stance to human nutrition. I feel one of the biggest challenges we are up against is that our brains have not fully “adapted” in a sense. In the primal times, when food was scarce our brain’s would reward us whenever we eat a meal with high fatty, solid caloric content. Why? Because we did not know when our next meal would be. Fast forward to modern times and our brains still reward us when we eat “junk” food. Our has environment changed but we did not. After running this scenario through my mind, I thought there has to be something better than this endless mountain of empty calories that encompasses the traditional western diet.

A few Google searches later I fell upon A smorgasbord of nutritional companies who offer the solution to the evolutionary shortfall we were given. Upon landing, I sent an email to every company that could ship to my continent, Europe that is. Talking about The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment. Within minutes I received an email from Joey of Joylent, letting me know how excited he was to hear from me and how he would love to participate in this experiment by donating the necessary food for the whole duration of the experiment. I was impressed by Joey’s resolve, to me, this was a man who was not afraid to stand behind his product, which took “balls” so to speak. It wasn’t before long I had an invite to Joylent headquarters in Amsterdam, Netherlands to meet its eccentric crew.

Upon arriving at Joylent HQ, I was introduced to its workforce. A cleverly assembled group of Dutch people, who had a great sense of humor. They had the comradery of a battled battalion, each feeding off one another to keep the environment positive. This would be explained by Joyent’s expansion from 2014 to 2015, from what I’ve seen and heard they earned the title of the Soylent of Europe =)

Let’s jump into a time machine and head back to the moment, welcome back to 1Feb2016 the first day of the experiment. To elaborate, I will consume Joylent for the first six months (1Feb2016-30Sep2016) and for the last six months (1Oct2016-1Feb2017). The order of participation was decided based on whom accepted the experiment first. Both companies (in my eyes) deserve the upmost respect for what they do. Entering a new food into the industry is never easy, but I have faith that they will be here in the long run.
My expectations

While I don’t expect to develop super ninja powers while on this lifestyle, I do think that it will have an overall positive impact on my general health.
Blood Lab Work; what will be tested?

My Glucose, Urea Nitrogen, Creatinine, eGFR, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Calcium, Protein Total, Albumin, A/G Ratio, Bilirubin Total, ALT (SGPT) Alkaline Phosphatase, Uric Acid, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Lipid Panel, Cholesterol, Vit B1, B6, B12 and D.
Tools of the trade

Every three months I will undergo the blood serum testing I mentioned earlier. I will post the results comparison percentages, here at this blog space. Every week (Sunday) I will upload the averages for all anthropometric data for that particular week, it will be compared to the previous week in graphs like the ones shown below.

To obtain the blood sugar and pressure readings, I will use the Trueresult and Omron Hem-711DLX instruments I bought from I will test my morning, before and after each meal and nightly blood sugar levels. I will check my blood pressure, heart rate, and weight every morning shortly after waking up. To add, I will also incorporate creatine monohydrate (5g) into a meal each day. This was decided due to the lack of it within Joylent; creatine is stored within muscles (animal protein). Our bodies are capable of making creatine from the protein we ingest (2-3grams), but this is typically sub-par to what we need in a day. Last will be the consumption of chewing gum while eating the Joylent meals; I decided to add this based on previous people completing a shorter length challenge complained of jaw pain from lack of use. Besides, digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth. Typically chewing activates the salivary glands, which secretes salivary amylase the enzyme responsible for initiating the breakdown of carbohydrates in the mouth.

Day 0 30Jan2016

Just prepared my first batch of Joylent and placed it in the fridge, bring on the excitement!

Day 1Feb2016

I just finished up the first day on Joylent. While I’ve eaten Joylent for 2 out of 3 meals before for three weeks, this is a first to consume nothing but it the whole day. I was pleasantly surprised that I did not feel hungry throughout the day. In fact, with my previous lifestyle, it was common around 3:00 pm that I had an afternoon dip in energy. While on Joylent for the whole day, I failed to hit that lull. =)
Day 2Feb2016

I feel great as I breezed through my afternoon workout. A thing that I noticed, every time I go to the gym while on the treadmill I check my heart rate. Usually, when I run 8.5 km an hour my actual heart rate is around 175, today it was 166. I realize that there are a lot of variables here. I will use my personal heart rate monitor to track this from now on and see if I notice any other occurrences in the future. While running it felt a bit easier, and my heart had to work a bit less.

Day 3Feb2016

I am on day three of the experiment, and I’ve seemed the hit the infamous gas coming out so bad you can clear a room with it, stage. While digestive wise everything is fine, I do not have horrible painful gas building up. It’s just the smell of these bad boys is very pungent. I read from previous experimenters that this stage is temporary. My Fiancee will be glad to know that the Dutch Oven days will come to an end =). Regarding my energy levels, I feel great and haven’t had an afternoon dip like on my previous lifestyle.
Day 4Feb2016

On to day 4, the turbulence in my stomach finally subsided. =) My Fiancee will be glad to know that is over and she can breathe without any fear. This morning I had a regular bowel movement. It seems my body needed some time to get used to this new lifestyle. Earlier today I went to the gym and had a fantastic workout. I have found for the time being that exercising on Joylent is relatively easy. I will continue to monitor it’s progressing as it is possible that it could be a placebo effect. (in my head, based on face value, I can see that Joylent has a much more balanced nutrient profile when compared to everyday food.) Another thing I noticed was that my heartburn had gone away, previously I was put on a proton pump inhibitor to control my stomach’s acid levels. I stopped taking the medication for this experiment and was surprised to learn my heartburn issues no longer exist. Very cool =) BTW, the mango flavor tastes exquisite. I like how Joylent shakes have a hint of flavor, but it’s not overpowering.

I decided to change up the order of which flavors I eat. For the first three days I ate nothing but strawberry, this became tiring pretty quick. From now on I will rotate flavors, picking three for each day. Below is a photo of tomorrow’s lineup.



 7Feb2016 Sunday Week 1 Synopsis

Week 0 and 1 Glucose Avg

Glucose Readings are in mg/dl format

Week 0 and 1 Anthropometric Readings Avg


Series 1= Week 0
Series 2= Week 1

Above are the charts comparing Week 0 to Week 1. It’s important to mention that Week 0 readings were taken over three days, while week one readings comprised of 7 days. The numbers are averaged for each week.

This week has been kind of interesting, for the first three days of 100% Joylent I had horrible smelling sulfuric gas. My Fiancee and I were pleased to find out that my intestines are normalized by day 4. I attributed this to the intestinal flora getting used to this new lifestyle. I noticed that my previous (before the experiment) afternoon dips of around 3 p.m. went away this past week. Additionally, while exercising, I had steady energy, which helped me in completing my workouts.

While grocery shopping today (7Feb16), I had a brief urge to consume other foods. While this was not physical (Joylent kept me satisfyingly full all day long), I did feel a sense of psychological hunger. I feel my body, for the time being, is having an issue, adapting psychologically. Joylent regarding it (consumption wise) is new. Over time I believe that I will be able to adjust and the problem of rational perspective will subside. All in all, it was a good week.


14Feb2016 Week 2 Synopsis


Wk 0,1,2 Anthropometric Readings Avg

Series 1 Week 0 (Before the Experiment)

Series 2 Week 1 of the experiment

Series 3 Week 2 of the experiment

Here we are wrapping up week 2. From the charts placed above you can see regarding my blood glucose readings that I have had steadily lowered my blood sugar over the past couple of weeks. So far it seems that living 100% on Joylent, has not been detrimental to my overall blood sugar health. My energy levels are great, what I noticed so far was that my energy levels have been steady throughout the day, no more afternoon dips. My workouts are very fulfilling, and I noticed that I could think more clearly. (less brain fog).

For valentine’s day today, my Fiancee attempted to make me Joylent pancakes. Here is a picture of how they came out:



As you can see Joylent is not an ideal pancake batter, it did not cook very evenly. (in its defense it was cooked in a non-stick pan with no oils added) Appearance aside it tasted amazing. =) It was nice to have a hot meal for a change. I will experiment with Joylent muffins and post pictures a bit later.

Back to the experiment, earlier this week I went to a campground for two days with my family in Belgium. We had a fantastic time, as it was very relaxing. =) A thing I noticed while eating Joylent in front of them at each dining session was that they immediately had a form of “food guilt.” They would begin to talk about different foods but would pause to stop and say “sorry; I keep on forgetting that your choices are so limited.” Before the experiment began, this never actually occurred. I attributed this to their unfamiliarity with the product. On paper, Joylent is a much excellent meal (nutrition wise) than the majority of what we eat in a typical Western diet. It seems that my family looked at Joylent with a bit of suspicion. It is understandable in a way, as it alters the way people look at food. It becomes transformed from a social ideal/collective to more of a question of nutritional quality/efficiency.


21-Feb-16 Week 3 Synopsis


Week 0,1,2,3 Anthropometric Measurements


Series 1: Week 0 (before the experiment began)

Series 2: Week 1 of the experiment

Series 3: Week 2 of the experiment

Series 4: Week 3 of the experiment

So here we are ending week 3 of The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment. Last week I mentioned how I went to a vacation park in Belgium for two days with my family. Well at the beginning of this week I came down with the flu. I noticed something fascinating, though, previously my typical “I’m starting to feel better phase” would begin about after five days of having the flu. While on 100% Joylent I hit that stage 3 days earlier at just day 2 of the flu. I found that to be rather remarkable.

Another thing that I found to be interesting was that my blood sugar has been doing rather well. From the above chart, you can see it fluctuates but has never actually gone into the critical zone, as it’s recommended to be below 140 made two hours after a meal. I noticed that while I was performing exercise, it would rise between 124-132 model but would return to between 94-100 made shortly after training.

My anthropometric measurements have also shown some slight improvement. Since beginning the experiment, I lost two kilograms, and my overall blood pressure has improved slightly. The only negative thing I’ve noticed is that I get a bit gassy at night after my last meal, by morning this seems to clear itself up. My fiancee equates them (smell wise) to that of a “dogs fart.” I will keep an eye on this, it may be that my body has yet to adjust to this new lifestyle fully.


28-Feb-16 Week 4 Synopsis Week01234BloodGlucoseReadingsAvg

Week01234 Anthropometric Readings


Data Set 1= Week 0 (before Joylent)

Data Set 2= Week 1 (after Joylent)

Data Set 3= Week 2 (after Joylent)

Data Set 4= Week 3 (after Joylent)

Data Set 5= Week 4 (after Joylent)

*If you subject 1 from the data set, that will give you what week it pertains to.*

Alas, the first month of The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment has come to an end. It’s been quite an interesting couple of weeks, what I would like to focus on this week is how eating Joylent changed my mindset on how I looked at food. A few years back I read Michael Pollan’s The Omnivore’s Dilemma.(a great read about humanity and food) One theme in this book talked about how eating in this day and age is difficult as an omnivore. Since we as humans can eat both meats, grains, and vegetables, we have a more difficult task understanding what is proper to eat. (essentially more choices can lead to more mistakes) With the marketing around food, it’s hard to figure out what is exactly “healthy.” Eating meals like Joylent and Pulve seem to come up with a solution to the omnivore’s dilemma in that it keeps the guess work out of eating. You rip open a pack, add some water, shake or blend, and you are ready to go. It brings everything back to basics, no need to sit and ponder about food. I like that aspect about these meals; it simplifies nutrition.

A lot of people have asked me if I ever get tired of eating the same thing over and over again? The answer to this question depends on a lot of variables; I take a look at the whole eating experience as a whole. As an example, Joylent comes in five flavors; Vanilla, Chocolate, Strawberry, Banana, and Mango. I have found that it’s easy to rotate the flavors every day. Which helps break up the boredom of eating the same type of meal every day. Also, the preparation and clean up time is a breeze. The downside is that each meal is cold, this is something I have to get used to especially around dinner time as this is when I would eat a hot meal.

So far my energy levels have been great, throughout my days I have steady energy. The gas issues I mentioned earlier seemed to have solved themselves. I still do have a bit of gas later in the night, but the frequency has gone down. Regarding my bowel movements, everything seems normal. All in all, so far it appears that Joylent can keep me running at pretty optimal levels. Since the beginning of the experiment, I have lost about 5kg. =)


6March2016 Week 5 Synopsis

Week0,1,2,3,4,5BloodGlucoseAvgWeek0,1,2,3,4,5 Anthropometric Measurements


Week 0= data 1 (before the experiment began)

Week 1= data  2

Week 3= data 3

Week 4= data 5

Week 5= data 6

Just subtract by 1 to find out which week it pertains to regarding the tentative timeline.

Another week down, being over a month and a week in I has adapted pretty well to 100% Joylent. It is worth mentioning that I upped my caloric intake from 2397 kcal to 2700 kcal starting at the beginning of this week. I found that 2397 kcal was inadequate for my level of activity. Since beginning the experiment, I lost over 7kg =). My current BMI is 23.1 for my height and weight (180 cm and 75kg, using metric is more universal, sorry America =) which is within the normal/ideal range. My weight has stabilized to around 75kg for the past couple of days. Blood glucose wise, I have had a steady drop since the beginning of the experiment. My energy levels have been relatively constant throughout the experiment. I’ve also noticed an improvement in my workouts, being able to last longer with less effort.

I do miss the social aspect of eating, while Joylent is ideal for nutritional wellness. It does lack certain influence within the social sphere. As an example, my Fiancee and I try to eat together every night but sometimes it takes longer for her to prepare her solid meals. I try to eat around the same times every day for fluidity. When those days occur (I am unable to eat at the same time with her) it dampers the mood a little. A big positive aspect of eating is the social bonding you form with the other person in the room. On the other hand, for me, breakfast and lunch are smooth as silk. (My Fiancee is not a big breakfast eater and usually grabs something while heading out the door)


13March2016 Week 6 Synopsis

 Week0-6BloodGlucoseAvgWeek0-6Anthropometric Measurements


Week 0= data 1 (before the experiment began)

Week 1= data  2

Week 3= data 3

Week 4= data 5

Week 5= data 6

Week 6= data 7

Just subtract by 1 to find out which week it pertains to regarding the tentative timeline.

Here we are at Week 6 of The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment. I feel amazing; my energy levels are better than ever. I feel that I can focus at a steady pace with my studies. This is all great, since beginning the experiment I lost 7kg. =) From the charts listed above you can see that all my physical measurements reflect that being on 100% Joylent has had a positive impact so far.

One thing I did notice was that it was important to keep up my daily water intake. If I did not drink the additional 1 liter of water (two and a half liters total, including Joylent shakes), my mouth would become rather dry very quickly. Of course, this was easily solved by consuming a bit of water. To conclude, it was another excellent week on 100% Joylent. I feel that my body has adapted well thus far and I am looking forward to my next meal.


20March2016 Week 7 Synopsis



Week 0= data 1 (before the experiment began)

Week 1= data  2

Week 3= data 3

Week 4= data 5

Week 5= data 6

Week 6= data 7

Week 7= data 8

Just subtract by 1 to find out which week it pertains to regarding the tentative timeline.

This week I will focus on some personal pros and cons of eating 100% Joylent.

After being on the Joylent for seven weeks, I found that it can keep my life sustained. Within the first month, I lost 7kg. This was due to myself consuming 2300kcal when I needed 2700 kcal. Now that I am eating 2700kcal I have maintained my weight of 75kg. (82kg before the experiment)

I found it is incredibly easy to live off Joylent. I weigh off my how many grams I need on a scale. (each gram is 4.075 kcal) throw it in a blender, and within 10 minutes I have all three meals blended and put in the fridge for the next day.

Since being on the experiment my blood glucose, pressure, and weight have all improved. Even my Sexual hormones LH and FSH (a marker of how much testosterone I am producing) are within normal levels. This is important to test due to the rumor that eating higher amounts of Soy can interfere with male hormones. I will provide a detailed blood test with a comparison to before the experiment after undergoing statistical analysis, after the third month April 2016.

The biggest downside is eating the same flavors every day. It tends to get boring after a while. I have real will power and will make it through the full year. =) I plan on using the shakes for morning and lunch but eating solid food for dinner after the experiment is over.

So to conclude:

excellent tool for weight loss/gain/maintenance

Easy to prepare only takes ten mins to cook three meals that are including clean up time

Taste great, the flavors themselves Joylent uses dried fruit, so they taste what they’re labeled as

Forces you to drink more water which is, in turn, healthier for your body

More steady energy through the day

Positive impact on bodily physiological processes I. E. Blood Pressure, Glucose readings, and Weight adjustments

Implored the overall quality of my workouts especially within the realm of stamina

limited taste selection when compared to solid foods.

The first week I had terrible gas while my body adjusted to the Joylent

Now at night I have minor gas issues which blow over before morning.

Not 100% socially accepted yet, when eating in groups there are odd reactions from people around you.


Week 8 Synopsis The One Year Meal Replacement 100% Joylent



Week 0= data 1 (before the experiment began)

Week 1= data  2

Week 3= data 3

Week 4= data 5

Week 5= data 6

Week 6= data 7

Week 7= data 8

Week 8= data 9

Just subtract by 1 to find out which week it pertains to regarding the tentative timeline.

Week 8 has come to an end, as always it’s been kind of interesting to eat 100% Joylent. Earlier this week I switched to the Mango flavor of Joylent. This is important to mention in that the Mango flavor (these are all nonvegan variant) has a different order of ingredients when compared to Strawberry, Chocolate, Banana, and Vanilla. The Mango has the protein listed after Oatmeal and vitamins and minerals, where as the others contain oatmeal, whey protein and then vitamins and minerals.

I noticed that the amount of gas I had gone down substantially. Both in quantity and smell. While it’s difficult to tell why it may have to do with the whey protein being listed further down the list. (remember the ingredients are listed by weight with the first being the most prominent).

Another way Mango differs is that it includes Fluoride, while the other nonvegan variants do not. It worth mentioning that Fluoride has a bad wrap. In my opinion, it’s ill justified. A lot of people are concerned that by consuming Fluoride that they will have neurological issues. (since Fluoride is technically classified as a neurotoxin.) You have to ask your self at what dosage is Fluoride a neurotoxin? Any ingredient (including water) can be toxic at certain levels.

The Adequate Intake of Fluoride for males 19-70 is set at 4mg/day, women 19-70 its 3mg/day according to a college text of mine (Nutrition through the life cycle) published by Brown, J. E., & Isaacs, J. S. (2014). Nutrition through the life cycle. Stamford, CT: CENGAGE Learning.

Adequate Intake is defined as The recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate-used when an RDA cannot be determined by,cr&fg=1#q=adequate+intake+definition.

The Upper Limit for Fluoride is set at 7mg/day. Upper Limit is defined as the highest level of a daily nutrient intake that will most likely present no risk of adverse health effects in almost all individuals in general by

Fluoride is a naturally occurring mineral found in our soil. Tea is known to contain higher levels of Fluoride when compared to other foods. It was introduced in the water supply after they found out that people exposed to it have much fewer incidents of tooth decay.

My point being, it’s important to have everything in moderation. If you follow the proper guidelines, you should not run into an issue with Fluoride.

I just spoke with a representative from Joylent who informed me that they Mango flavor has the same composition regarding ingredients, only their labels differ slightly.


Week 9 Synopsis The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment



Week 0= data 1 (before the experiment began)

Week 1= data  2

Week 3= data 3

Week 4= data 5

Week 5= data 6

Week 6= data 7

Week 7= data 8

Week 8= data 9

Week 9= data 10

Just subtract by 1 to find out which week it pertains to regarding the tentative timeline.

Whoop whoop, week 9 is upon us =). For this week I switched to 100% Joylent vegan. The immediate difference when comparing non-vegan vs. vegan is that the vegan shake is much thicker after being mixed. So much so, I do not refrigerate them anymore. Instead, I mix all three shakes in the morning and set them on the counter. Taste wise, I have tried Vegan Chocolate (which has a peanut butter taste to it) which is completely awesome as I am a big fan of peanut butter. The typical if you could take one food on an island question? PB would be an absolute yes! =)

From what I noticed my physical measurements hadn’t deviated too much. I lost another kg this week. I still am in a healthy BMI range of 22.4 for my height and weight (180 cm and 72.7kg) The issues with gas have subsided severely while on the vegan variant. That’s good news, especially for my Fiancee as she has had to deal with the brunt of it. =) She is a trooper for putting up with that.

My basal metabolic rate is 1760.5, basically how much calories I need to cover an essential bodily functions. I.E. heart rate, brain, lungs, etc. Using the Harris Benedict Equation, I needed 1760.5X1.375= 2421 kcal a day. When I began the experiment, I was consuming 2400kcal for the first month. Now I consume 2700kcal but have a higher Harris Benedict Equation requirement of 1760.5X1.55=2729kcal a day due to being more active.

Since beginning the experiment I lost 10 kg, I have a theory about this. Throughout my study, I have seen that sugar has no real reason to be in the body. (I am referring to refined sugars) Food splits into different classifications macro (big) nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, and protein) and micro (small) nutrients vitamins and minerals. Our bodies are always providing a balance when it comes to converting energy. Carbs, fats, and protein is the order in which our bodies use macronutrients for fuel. There is a theory that while we eat sugars higher than our daily recommendation (30 grams) our bodies are working harder to get rid of the sugar, i.e. use this source for energy and not following the guided carbs, fats, protein. Instead, our bodies store the fats instead of using them as a power supply. Upon cutting down on sugars, the intended energy pathway is used. This line of thought could explain why I lost so much weight in so little time.

How do we avoid eating too many sugars? They are everywhere, in processed foods, fast food you name it. It’s cheap for companies to use as an ingredient and we’ve grown accustomed to the taste.

On 1 April 2016, Joey (the Big Kahuna at Joylent) made a video titled Joulemeter you can check it out here. It was a lot of fun, we shot a bit in my home then went into my city (Eindhoven, Netherlands) for a few shots. Thanks to Joey for editing this video, if you haven’t checked it out, he makes lots of cool videos. He is a very creative guy!


Week 10 synopsis The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment




Week 0= data 1 (before the experiment began)

Week 1= data  2

Week 3= data 3

Week 4= data 5

Week 5= data 6

Week 6= data 7

Week 7= data 8

Week 8= data 9

Week 9= data 10

Week 10= data 11

Just subtract by 1 to find out which week it pertains to regarding the tentative timeline.

Here we are ten weeks into The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment. It’s been a fun week; I am now on 100% Joyent’s vegan product for the whole month of April 2016. The taste of the vegan flavors is a bit different when compared to the non-vegan variant. They have a more “earthy” taste to them which I like. I’ve noticed that my blood sugar readings went down when compared to the previous week. Which is always a good thing, in the dietetics world it’s better to have a lower blood sugar level as long as it does not fall too low (below 70 mg/dl).


Joylent Cupcakes

This week I learned how to cook Joylent muffins out of the microwave. A big thanks to Daniel Buendia Barcelo for the suggestion. I took 220 grams of Joylent added 400ml of water, blended the ingredient and added them to silicon muffin trays. After microwaving for six minutes, they were ready. =) They reminded me a bit of under cooked banana bread. They tasted fine, but it was a bit like eating play dough (texture wise). It was nice actually to chew food for a change. Also, I noticed it was easier on my digestive system to consume them this way. I had less gas when compared to eating Joylent as a pure liquid. Check out which is a Joylent Muffin video I made.

Next are my plans for phase two of Joylent. i.e. the last three months. After April 31, 2016, the second half of the experiment begins. (remember after April 31, 2016, I will take my first blood test for the following which will be compared against the original findings taken Jan 31, 2016, before beginning the experiment) My Bilirubin Total Alkaline Phosphatase Alanine aminotransferase (ALAT;SGPT) Creatinine Kreatinineklaring MDRD (GFR) results CKD-EPI eGFR, estimated clearance creat, Uric Acid, Sodium Potassium, Chloride Total ,Cholesterol HDL ,Cholesterol Triglycerides LDL, Cholesterol Direct Cholesterol / HDL, cholesterol ratio ,Calcium Phosphate, Total Protein, Albumin Blood, Magnesium, Fasting Glucose ,Vitamin B12, Folic Acid ,Hemoglobin (HB), Platelets, Erythrocytes ,Hematocrit (HT) ,Mean Cell Volume ,RBC Red Blood Cell Distribution Width, Leukocytes, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), Vitamin D (250H) Parathyroid Hormone levels will be analyzed.

For the second phase, I will include more testing of various supplements while on Joylent. In other words, take different supplements alongside Joylent to see if my physical measurements improve. I am saving the first three months to make it as pure as possible. I will also increase my activity level much more for the second phase, to see if Joylent can support a more active lifestyle.


Week 11 Synopsis The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment



Week 0= data 1 (before the experiment began)

Week 1= data  2

Week 3= data 3

Week 4= data 5

Week 5= data 6

Week 6= data 7

Week 7= data 8

Week 8= data 9

Week 9= data 10

Week 10= data 11

Week 11 = data 12

Just subtract by 1 to find out which week it pertains to regarding the tentative timeline.

Another week closer to the first round of blood testing.=) After April 31, 2016, I will go in to have my blood drawn. I am very excited to see what the first blood results are this week to see if there were any changes. This was the first week where I ate 100% Joylent muffins I baked. The gas issues that plagued me in the past are not longer an issue. At this moment, there are no more bothersome than when before I began. It’s interesting by just heating up Joylent can make such a difference on my digestive system. Another point I would like to test by doing so (spending the rest of the experiment by heating up Joylent). Is to see if the microwave destroys nutrients to the point of rendering them useless. I have heard that the microwave has a bad “wrap” so to speak. If this is true, it should show in the second testing of my blood.

The second change was the addition of Adrafinil. Adrafinil is a wake-promoting agent, which is turned into Modafinil by our liver. Going into the experiment, I wanted to keep it pure as possible which is why I eliminated caffeine. To refresh your mind, during week 5 I developed a rash called urticaria. I went to my doctor, and she explained to me that it’s an auto immune issue where your bodies immune system goes into overdrive. This was a particular issue for me as I am an allergy patient who has environmental allergies. Because of this, I had to resort to taking two anti histamines to relive the urticaria. This left me feeling drained all the time; I had to take the Adrafinil to counter act the anti histamines.

My blood sugar levels lowered this week; I am curious if this was due to the Adrafinil or baking the Joylent in the microwave? It’s also worth mentioning that you have to take choline bitartrate (Adrafinil depletes acetylcholine, if you do not replenish, you will develop headaches) and milk thistle (Adrafinil is hard on your liver, the milk thistle helps protect it.) Truthfully, it could have been anyone of these ingredients which caused the drop in blood sugar levels. It’s hard to tell which as I started taking them around the same time.


 Week 12 Synopsis The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment

Week12BloodGlucoseReadingsAvgWeek 12 Anthropometric MeasurementsAvg


Week 0= data 1 (before the experiment began)

Week 1= data  2

Week 3= data 3

Week 4= data 5

Week 5= data 6

Week 6= data 7

Week 7= data 8

Week 8= data 9

Week 9= data 10

Week 10= data 11

Week 11 = data 12

Week 12= data 13

Just subtract by 1 to find out which week it pertains to regarding the tentative timeline.

How amazing, it has been 12 weeks of being on 100% Joylent. I like how fast and easy it is to prepare. That is really what’s great about the product, but will it be able to keep my body running physiologically? Next week I will undergo the first of two rounds of Joylent testing for my blood. =)

Regarding this past week, my blood sugar levels rose a bit. The biggest change was the way I prepared the Joylent. Now I microwave them into little Joylent muffins. I will continue this method for the remaining amount of time on Joylent.

Phase two of Joylent is coming up, after week 13 I will begin a new regime (step 2). For the second phase, I will incorporate more exercise into my daily routine. At the moment I exercise when I have time, for this next period I will sport five days a week to see if Joylent can keep up with the added routine.

A topic I would like to discuss is the dangers of sugars in our foods. In 1970 there was a big debate in the scientific community as to what was causing Western diseases like obesity, heart disease, diabetes, etc. They immediately turned to the diet, which contains a fair amount of carbohydrates, fats, and protein. For a while, they came to the conclusion that fats were the troublesome factor. So in the 1980’s they came up with fat-free foods. But this did not solve the problem, in fact, there was an epidemic of Western Diseases, and they (main stream science) overlooked an important dietary factor, sugars.

John Yudkin was a nutritionist and physician in Great Britain, who first warned the scientific community (in 1970) about the dangers of sugars in our diet, mainly sucrose (table sugar) and High Fructose Corn Syrup. I would highly recommend you read the book pure, white, and Deadly by John Yudkin ( He can talk about this topic in much more detail. I would also recommend you check out the lecture, Sugar: a bitter truth by Dr. Robert Lustig ( both are extremely informative.

Joylent (and much other meal replacement shakes) contain a very low sugar content. I think this would explain why I lost so much weight (10kg or 22lbs) in the first two months. Through a traditional Western diet, it’s nearly impossible to substantially reduce a number of sugars you consume because manufacturers put them in everything. For this reason, I will continue with this type of experiment for as long as my health will allow me.


Week 13 Synopsis The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment




Week 0= data 1 (before the experiment began)

Week 1= data  2

Week 3= data 3

Week 4= data 5

Week 5= data 6

Week 6= data 7

Week 7= data 8

Week 8= data 9

Week 9= data 10

Week 10= data 11

Week 11 = data 12

Week 12= data 13

Week 13= data 14

Basically subtract by 1 to get the week.

A significant milestone for the experiment has passed, this week I went in to get my blood draw for the first time after taking the baseline readings. This is 1 of 4 times I will do this for the experiment. I expect the results to come in sometime this week and should have them available for you to see here on this blog space. So keep a look out! =) I am very interested to see what they reveal.

On to phase two of the experiment for Joylent (May 1 16 – Jul 31 16). For this stage, I will make a couple of changes to the routine. Previously I was keeping the experiment as streamlined as possible, i.e. with little adulteration regarding purity. This time around, I will add the following supplements below to see how they affect my blood sugar levels.

Omega-3 fish oil 700mg (blood sugar)
of which EPA 126 mg
of which DHA 84 mg
Evening Primrose Oil 700mg (blood sugar)
Flax seed oil: 700mg (blood sugar)
Glucosamine HCl 1.5 g (a joint supplement for the exercise)
Methylsulfonylmethane 1.5 g (a joint supplement for the exercise)
Adrafinil 900 mg (wakeful promoting agent, had to start taking to counteract the allergy pills I am on, I felt sleepy at the time)
Milk Thistle 200 mg (to help liver function, Adrafinil is known to be harder than normal on your liver)
Choline Bitartrate 500 mg (to prevent headaches from Adrafinil)
Creatine Monohydrate 5 g (Joylent does not contain creatine a necessary nutrient for your body, I have been taking this since the experiment began)

Another question of mine for this experiment was to see if Joylent can uphold my health while following a structured exercise routine. With that being said, I will include a more rigorous exercise regime from this point on. I plan on documenting this information to include within the blog posts.

I am proud to announce that my lovely Fiancee will be joining the experiment starting tomorrow, she will be consuming Joylent for one month straight. She will also make a video about her experiences to post on my channel. Having a female perspective will be a good point of view. =)


Week 14 Synopsis The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment



Week 0= data 1 (before the experiment began)

Week 1= data  2

Week 3= data 3

Week 4= data 5

Week 5= data 6

Week 6= data 7

Week 7= data 8

Week 8= data 9

Week 9= data 10

Week 10= data 11

Week 11 = data 12

Week 12= data 13

Week 13= data 14

Week 14= data 15

Subtract by 1 to get the week.

Last week Amelie asked me to include an option which shows the charts in a larger format, your wish has been granted my friend =). Below is a link you can click on which will give you access to my google drive folder which contains the standard sizing charts. For some odd reason, wordpress shrinks the charts.

Yay, the results are in!! Here they are, I split them into normal or abnormal categories:

Healthy: bilirubin total, alkaline phosphate, gamma GT, ALAT, creatine, creatine clearing (MDRD), creatine clearance (CKD-EPI), atrium, potassium, chloride, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, cholesterol/HDL ratio, calcium, phosphate, protein total, magnesium, glucose, folic acid, hemoglobin, thrombocyte, hematocrit, mean cell volume, red cell distribution width, leukocyte, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, vitamins b1, b6, and d.

Abnormal readings: uric acid (too high), HDL-cholesterol (too low), albumin (too high), vitamin B12 (too high), erythrocytes (too high), parathyroid hormone (too high).

Out of thirty-seven measurements taken, only six were abnormal. That’s not too bad, later this week I will go to my doctor to review the results and see if any of them are of clinical significance. I will keep you guys posted!

Keep a look out, later this week here on this blog as I will post any significant changes in the form of a statistical graph here on this blog space for all measurements involved.
UPDATE about abnormal reading: I went to my GP to discuss the results, she said the uric acid, HDL-cholesterol, albumin, vitamin B12 and erythrocytes were within the lab error window and were nothing to be worried about. The parathyroid hormone was indeed high, but she said my Vitamin D was on the lower-normal end. She said that by raising my Vitamin D level, my parathyroid hormone should come back within normal ranges. She recommended I go outside in the sun without sunblock for 15-30 minutes every day. I am notorious for using 30 SPF sunscreen every day. I will be reevaluated in 6 weeks to see if this problem goes away. I will post a follow up for you all after then.


Week 15 Synopsis for The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment


Click here for Google Drive Download which includes larger graphs

I am still trucking; Week 15 is about to come to a close. I still feel fine, although I lost another kilogram of weight (now weigh 70 kg, 12 kilograms in total since the experiment began). For my height and weight, I can go down to 60 kg and still be within a normal body range. This past week has been very busy for me, and I was unable to set a steady exercise routine. Starting tomorrow, I will exercise three days a week. Every Mon, Wed, and Friday. I will include weight lifting, cardio, and yoga into my routine. My Fiancee and I went swimming for an hour this past Thursday. I felt like my muscles became a bit sour quicker on the Joylent. (the moment when you start to feel the exercise in your muscles) I was able to keep up with the training, and I did not suffer any cramps or fatigue. I created a new graph style, based on my Fiancee’s advance. In a larger format, they read quite nice; you can click on the link to download them from my Google Drive folder.

 Week 16 Synopsis for The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment


Click here for google drive download which includes larger graphs

Take one away from each data set to find out a current week.

I.E. Dataset 17-1=Week 16

So four months into The One Year Replacement Experiment and I am feeling fine. I feel as if it would be possible to live off 100% Joylent for a longer period. The biggest downside I’ve experienced so far is the lack of variety for having to eat the same five flavors. In Joyent’s defense, they do not market their product as a 100% meal replacement product of which they encourage you to eat it all the time. It is nice how cheap the meals are, which is a big selling point for me as the would-be a consumer.

As I post every week here, I would like to let you know of some changes I will do from now on, in an earlier post I mentioned how I was taking the 660 gram, 220 gram per meal regimen and dividing it up a bit differently to 315 grams for breakfast, 222 grams for lunch and 123 grams for dinner. This was based on seeing an experiment conducted by an Israeli university, where a group of people who followed this style, lowered many of their anthropometric readings similar to what I am testing, i.e. blood sugar, blood pressure, heart rate and weight.

After meeting with Ruud the owner of (the second company I am testing after Joylent) I have decided to alter the eating time frame of the meals. I will stick with the same amount of grams divided above but, will stick to an eight-hour eating window followed by a 16 hour fast. This is what the practice of Intermittent Fasting follows. (do a quick Google search and a ton of information will pop up). Due to my schedule 8:00am-16:00 pm works best for me. Within that time frame, I will consume the meals, outside of that window I will only consume water, teas, and decaffeinated beverages. This way of eating is based off the bodies fed and fasting state. For more information about this, I would advise you to check out James Clear’s article at This would be done to see if I can improve my current bodily measurements in an even better direction.


Week 17 Synopsis for The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment


Click for larger version of charts

Take one away from each data set to find out current week.

I.E. Data set 18-1=Week 17

This week I went to have my six months check up with my dentist. Shortly after inspecting my teeth she made a comment how I had much less plaque on my teeth than last time. Regarding my dental hygiene practices not much has changed over the past year regard the way I cleaned my teeth. I still use dental picks, an electric toothbrush (brushed three times a day and flossed every night. The biggest change, of course, was switching to 100% Joylent back in February and eliminating some soft drinks I drank. (I now only drink decaffeinated coffee, teas, and water.) I will say there is a difference (dental wise) when I consume Joylent in its liquid or muffin form. The liquid form tends to stick to my teeth and tongue, (if you drink the liquid form a lot, I would recommend you get a tongue scraper as it creates a film that easily comes off with a scraping and brushing) This type of food is heaven for bacteria due to it’s already ground state. After eating a muffin, I noticed much less Joylent sticks to my teeth and tongue.

Some of the pros and cons of consuming Joylent 100%. Let’s start with the pro’s; it’s cheap, easy and quick to make. There is not another food source that can give you as much “nutritional” power that is so fast and easy to make. Hands down that is a plus! My Fiancee and I went to the farmers market this weekend (she also just finished eating Joylent 100% for a whole month, she will post a video on my channel so talking about her experience) it took us nearly four hours to leave the house, buy the products and clean up the fridge and re-stock the items we bought for her. With Joylent you click and receive it without even leaving your home. That’s a nice feeling to have more free time. =) The biggest con is its lack of variety. If you were to consume Joylent occasionally this would not be such a big issue, but for those who consume 100% it is. It would also help to have some more savory flavors such as pumpkin spice, tomato soup, etc.

Last week I spoke with Ruud of (the next companies whose shake I will experiment with). He introduced me to the idea of fasting, which I must say seems cool. Being a current dietetics student, I am not thoroughly convinced that some of our current practices about nutrition are the best for us. I (like other food enthusiasts) believe that our bodies have not fully “caught” up with our new environment. Food and is abundant than ever and you have to do the little exercise to obtain it. (imagine the older days when we had to chase down our food) The calorie in and out was more in balance; today collectively has a whole we are little couch potatoes when compared to our predecessors. So to me the fasting idea makes sense, inspired by the talk I had with Ruud, I turned to Google to see what the latest scientific data said about fasting. I found the BBC documentary, Eat, Fast & Live Longer on at I would highly recommend you check this video out as it’s very informative from a scientific point of view.

There is three main type of fasting practices:

Alternate daily fasting: this is when you would eat whatever you like, how much you like for one day than the next restrict your diet to 500kcal. Alternating ever another day. As stated in the BBC documentary, they found that the participants of this dietary lifestyle did not increase they total consumption by vast amounts when not fasting. A little over there 100% norm.
Intermittent fasting: this is when you eat within a window and fast within another. This is the type of method I am using at the moment with Joylent. I consume all my calories within a 08:00-16:00 window to fast for 16 hours before the next meal.
24-hour fasting: this is pretty much self-explainable, you do consume a “cup of soup” for electrolytes.
5:2 diet: this is where five days out of the week you consume regular meals to fast two days out of the week. More information can be found here:

Why fast to begin with?

From an individual level this does make sense, if you think about your daily eating habits, there may not be a pause as to when you stop eating. Considering it takes about 12 hours before you enter the fasting state of your body. In theory, you body does not start metabolizing fat until after that 12 hour period. This could also help with the natural order of energy, i.e. carbohydrates, fats and protein for energy in that order.

Scientists found a link in insulin growth factor 1 and illness in mice, as the documentary explains higher levels of IGF1 could increase the chances of you developing certain ailments. This could be explained by the go-go state of your body when IGF1 is raised, and the repair says when your IGF1 is reduced. (i.e. your body makes less new cells and repairs the old existing cells. The opposite is true when IGF1 is raised). Again I suggest you check out the BBC Documentary I list above as it explains it in much more detail.


Week 18 Synopsis for The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment


For larger images download from Google Drive with this link

Take one away from each data set to find out current week.

I.E. Data set 19-1=Week 18

At last, another week bites the dust; week 18 is about to come to an end. =) This has been a fun week for me because Isabel (Joylent customer service) sent me 10 Tweeny bars from chocolate and banana flavor.


My impression of the Tweeny bars

I split the Tweeny bars into three on Friday and seven on Saturday (this equates to about my caloric intake with Joylent shakes). For that Saturday I took my usual readings, which were a heart rate of 75, systolic bp 102 and diastolic bp 70 weight of 70kg. For my blood sugar readings, I did not seem a drastic decrease when compared to the previous day. I did a sensation of feeling full longer on the bars. My Fiance and I went grocery shopping; they were much easier to transport and consume on the road. I liked the taste of the bars, the first one I bit into I could immediately taste the salt (this is because Joylent shakes have little salt content within them). By the second bar, this salty sensation went away, and they tasted healthy. I preferred the chocolate flavor over the banana. This makes sense as banana is my least favorite character in all things. I am exited to see how the strawberry and vanilla taste. The structure and mouth feel of the bars were excellent; the outside is soft while the inside is a bit drier which gives it a good bite to them. They did give me a bit more gas than usual, on the ingredients packaged there is a lot of milk products listed. I assume that if I could jump in a time machine and eat a lactase enzyme like these before consuming each meal, they would have improved that issued. All in all, the bars had a nice balance to them, kudos to Joylent!

The second topic I would like to discuss is body image and body mass index. Since I began the experiment, i’ve had a lot of my friends (who study fitness, physiology, anatomy, etc.) tell me that I look too skinny. According to the BMI scale, I am a 21.9 well within the normal range being between 18.5–24.9. I have been at this range for the past three months. This is kind of interesting, I think sometimes we become confused when it comes to what a “healthy” BMI/body image shall look like. I can see a trend (mainly in mainstream media) that the ideal man is portrayed to have a muscular build when women are supposed to have a 00 waist size. I think this is total rubbish; everyone is going to have a different build based on their genetics. There is no ideal build; I think mainstream media portray an unrealistic standard of which could never be achieved. (i.e. fashion magazines etc.) They want to sell you stuff, and if you could meet that standard, then there would be nothing else to buy. Essentially there are in for your wallet!


Week 19 Synopsis for The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment


Click to download larger version of chart

As you may have noticed, I did not include the blood glucose readings for this week. The reason for this was because my testing strips I order from The United States are having an issue getting through local customs. This is a bit of a godsend, as my fingers have become quite sore from the daily readings of eight times a day. When I have the strips in I will continue the chart.

For this week I would like to focus on three main topics, first is the lactase enzyme, second regards my next upcoming experiment (after I finish this one) and lastly short thanks for following the blog space and channel.

On to the lactase enzyme, starting around the second week, I started having issues with eating 100% Joylent and gas. The gas that came out of me was frequent, pungent and quite embarrassing. If there were a category in Guinness for the world’s most horrendous farts, I would have won by a landslide. This was rectified by taking the lactase enzyme pills I ordered here. Well I still have gas on occasion, the smell is nowhere near as offensive. I did not have this issue with Joylent’s Vegan version.

I enjoy doing these kinds of experiments, so much I decided to take part in a second which will begin after I finish up with (2017 timeframe) I believe that you all will like this one, it is quite a controversial food topic. I am negotiating with several businesses at the moment. The experiment will be the same as I am doing now but with another source of food. I will let you guys know what it is I will be testing as the start date becomes closer.

Last for this week is special thanks to you all following the experiment, without you guys it would have no purpose. =) If you have any suggestions for me please feel free to let me know. I am aware my camera equipment on the moment is not the best, (I am shooting with a point and shot I bought in 2010 Samsung HD pocket cam) I noticed that in low light it’s not the best, so I will try to make my videos during the day from now on. That’s about it for this week, take care!


Week 20 Synopsis For The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment


Click to download larger chart

I am almost there this leg of the journey ends 1 August 2016 yay! This week has been good; I have still yet to receive the glucose testing strips I am waiting for so I could only include the chart with the anthropometric readings. For this week I would like to focus on intermittent fasting, sugar, and high fructose corn syrup and how I feel about the meal replacement shakes in general.

Intermittent fasting is how you eat within a period of time. There are three main practices of intermittent fasting. The first is when you eat within a particular window (i.e. 8:00am-5:00 pm) the idea is to have at least 16 hours between your last meal. This is the type of intermittent fasting I follow with the Joylent I am consuming at the moment.

The second is called alternate daily fasting; this is where you eat as much as you want for one day while restricting yourself to 500kcal and bullion the next day. You continue this pattern indefinitely.

The third is know as the 5:2 diet, give it a Google search and its creators will pop up. You usually eat for five days while restricting your calories (just bullion) for two days nonconsecutive out of the week.

All three of these have shown positive health benefits, in clinical studies. It is advised that you speak with your healthcare provider before beginning this lifestyle.

On to sugar and high fructose corn syrup, numerous studies have linked these two to ill health effects. Take some time to Google it and see what you come up with. From a nutritional standpoint sugar and high fructose, corn syrup brings no nutritional value to the table while running the possible risk for ill health. It is in my opinion that you should severely reduce your intake of both sugars and high fructose corn syrups. I feel this is why my liver’s health has improved thus far. When you get a chance, take a look at Sugar: The Bitter Truth by Dr. Robert Lustig.

The last topic for this week, I feel that these meal replacements should have a place on your shelf. They are easy to make, good for on the go and pack all the essentials you need. From my point of view, the lack of variety regarding taste is an issue, but the typical consumer does not eat them 100% all the time.


Week 21 Synopsis for The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment


click here to download larger version of chart

This week I will talk about the practice of a known nutritional routine called chrono-nutrition. Chrono-nutrition is achieved when you split your meals into three different calorie reduced arrangements. The idea is to take the proper amount of calories you need and make your meals smaller caloric-wise throughout the day. Start big end up small, a good way to remember this would be “eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince and dinner like a pauper.”

As an example, I consume 2,700 kcal a day of 100% Joylent. For breakfast, I eat 1,284 kcal, lunch 909 kcal and dinner 509 kcal. Researchers from Tel Aviv University (click the link here to see) in August 2013 performed a kind of interesting experiment. They recruited 93 obese patients who took place in a study where they were split into two groups. Both teams were given a 1,400 kcal diet for 12 weeks.

Group 1 was given the above-explained chronic-nutrition lifestyle, breakfast 700 kcal, lunch 500 kcal and dinner was 200 kcal. While group two received the opposite of 200 kcal for breakfast, 500 kcal for lunch and 700 kcal for dinner.

At the end of the study group 1 lost on average 17.8 lbs (8.07 kg) and 3 inches (7.62 cm) off their waist while group two lost on average 7.3 pounds (3.3 kg) and 1.4 inches (3.5 cm) of their size. Also, group, one showed lowered levels of insulin, glucose, and triglycerides which reduced their overall risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and cholesterol levels.

I’ve been following this lifestyle for about 2.5 months now, and I noticed substantial improvements in the way my body interprets hunger. This coupled with the intermittent fasting is a great way to maintain (or lose any excess) body weight. I have not felt hungry at all since I begin this regime.

I would recommend you give it a try and see if it works out for you, before beginning any new dietary regimen I would advise you check with your doctor.


Week 22 Synopsis for The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment

Week 22 Synopsis Blood Sugar Readings AveragedWeek22SynopsisTOYMREAnthropometricMeasurementsAVG

Subject 1 to get correct week i.e. Week 23-1= Week 22

Click to download enlarged charts

*I received the blood sugar strips in this week, (those things took forever to come in) on the chart I listed weeks 19-21 as 0 since I did not have the strips to test my blood sugar then.

Since the Joylent portion of this experiment is coming to an end (1 August 2016). I would like to open a question and answer dialogue for you all; please post any nutritional/Joylent related issues in the comments below, and I will answer them for you this coming week.


 Week 23 Synopsis for The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment


Click to download larger charts

For current week just subject by one, Week 24-1= 23

Last week I opened up the chance for you all following to ask any nutrition/Joylent related questions. Marc Sader posted a fascinating question, how I feel about long-term artificial sweeteners use? There are many misconceptions about food; this topic is no exception.

So the long-term use of artificial sweeteners is a pretty controversial topic. Both sides of the argument for or against have some pretty solid reasons. Personally, I am on the for side, but like anything, there is always pro’s and cons.


reduction of cavities
artificial sweeteners can decrease calories which otherwise would have been taken in by sugars
much stronger taste than sugar, it’s sweeter, you need less to get a similar desired effect


Myth: Artificial sweeteners help control weight, there have been several studies that shown this untrue, (Article about Artificial Sweeteners and Metabolism) yet we do not know why.
They are relatively new, (man made variety) Dr. Yudkin believed that our bodies take at least 300,000 plus years to adapt to the environment. Food is no exception.

The truth about food science is that it is a relatively new field. One of which does have biases, the United States is one of the only countries where you can pay for an expert opinion. The food industries have access to a reasonable amount of wealth which translates to a lot of power and influence. That does not necessarily mean, what is recommended is completely biased, but I would keep a watchful eye. After all, a negative food connotation could affect their sales.

Here is why I am for the long-term use of artificial sweeteners:

As I mentioned previously, I came up with the idea of this experiment based on previous theories by Dr. Yudkin and Dr. Lustig relating to sugar. Consuming 100% Joylent was a way I could track exactly how much sugar I am consuming. Outside of Joylent use, it would be very long to sit down and track exactly how much sugar I ate.

In the Summer 0f 2015, I took a Biochemistry course, which one was of the most challenging courses I have ever taken in my life. It opened my eyes to how amazing our bodies are at handling food as an energy source.

I am not advocating that your should avoid sugar at all costs, the recommended daily allowance is about 30 grams a day. Knowing that you will quickly see how fast it is to surpass that number on a traditional Western lifestyle.

Why would I recommend you to consume artificial sweeteners? My logic is pretty simple, at the moment eating 100% Joylent I ingest about 38 grams of sugar a day based on what is listed on their ingredients panel. (30 grams of sugar per 520 grams of Joylent, 30/520=.058 I consume 660 grams a day .058 (sugar per grams) times 660 grams = 38 grams a day. While I did not count how much sugar I consumed daily before the experiment began, it was vastly higher than 38 grams a day that I know for sure.

So by aiming closer to the recommended daily allowance for sugar at 30 grams per day, I found that I was able to see a difference in my internal health. This was reflected in my blood work and the significant reduction in ALAT (before the experiment it was high, and it significantly reduced by the 3rd month) a marker healthcare workers use to gauge liver health. This could correlate with Dr. Lustig’s theory about the impact of sugars on are our liver health.

To conclude, I do not feel that it would be harmful if you consumed artificial sweeteners within the Adequate Daily Intake. Here is a link provided by the beverage companies where you can see what those recommended limits are: Adequate Daily Intake Artificial Sweeteners.


Home Made Electrolyte Drink

For this week I would like to introduce you to my homemade electrolyte drink recipe. Recently I began training for the Eindhoven half marathon that starts 9 October 2016. I am in the beginning stages of my training where I am running 4.5 km, 6.8 km, and 8 km weekly, each week it will be increased slightly over the next three months. I am using Runkeepers app which comes with a preset three month half marathon training schedule. If you’re a runner and haven´t downloaded run keeper yet I suggest you take a look. It comes with zero bloat wear and is surprisingly feature-packed for being a free app.

The Joylent has been doing an excellent job keeping up with most my needs regarding exercising. Besides my muscles ¨souring¨ a bit quicker, I do not have any other complaints.

Back to the topic on hand homemade electrolyte drink, why is supplementation of electrolytes even necessary? Daily we lose electrolytes through our sweat and other bodily fluids. How often you need to replenish is based on the amount you sweat. There is a current guideline if that you exercise more than one hour it is recommended to replace lost electrolytes. This is not set in stone, as an example, I am a naturally thick sweater. I reach the equivalent of sweat by volume within the 20-minute mark. Electrolytes are also lost when someone has episodes of diarrhea and vomiting. Check out Dr. Axe´s excerpt on electrolyte imbalance from his website here for more information like sign and symptoms of imbalance etc.

On to the recipe, it´s incredibly easy to make you own electrolyte drink simply take 2 cups of water (474 ml), 28 grams of pure honey, which contains 35 grams of sugar (no fake honey which has unnecessary added sugars, Google fake honey to see what I am talking about), 3 tablespoons of pure lemon juice or (1 peeled whole lemon), 500 mg- 2 grams of table salt (it is not recommended to use Mountain or Sea Salts as they can only contain Sodium and not chloride, the main electrolytes lost you are replacing is sodium, chloride and potassium. You can either choose to add potassium to the water or simply eat two bananas throughout the day. Throw it in a blender and blend for about 15 seconds on low speed. I drink 1 cup or 8 ounces (236 ml) two hours before a heavy workout and 1 cup or 8 ounces (236ml) 30 minutes after a heavy workout. It does taste a bit better chilled. Of course, you should still aim at drinking 2-3 liters of water daily, not including the water you lose through exercise.

I would also recommend you supplement magnesium and calcium through pill form as a kind of insurance.

So as you can see it´s incredibly easy and cost effective to make your electrolyte mix, happy sporting everyone =). Here is a video I made on how to create your own electrolyte mix from home.

(I will post the weekly blood sugar and anthropometric charts tomorrow, 25 July 2016 as today was my birthday, my Fiancée and I did some celebrating.)

Good News

The blood results for the final testing of Joylent are in keep a look out for the video on my channel.

Have you seen the news lately about the recently published sugar industry data scandal,

As I mentioned previously here in the blog space, one of my primary motivations for starting the experiment was to test two things.

1. To see if long term consumption of Joylent was safe

2. What would happen when I significantly reduced my sugar intake for an extended period.

The issue with the Sugar industry, a couple of decades back two scientists had a heated debate on what is to blame for a lot of health related ailments. Dr. Ancel Keys believed that fats were to blame while Dr. John Yudkin found that sugars were to blame. In the end, the scientific community backed Dr. Yudkin’s point of view hence all the low fat products you saw in grocery stores in the 90’s. Years went back, and we were still becoming ill? But I thought we solved the issue with reducing overall fat intake? This is where a mentor of mine came in that great Dr. Lustig.

In Fall 2015 I watched a lecture by Dr. Lustig (a California based Endocrinologist) on Basically in very detailed scientific talk Dr. Lustig laid out exactly why he thinks sugars (in excess) are bad for us in his lecture. I was immediately intrigued and decided to reach out to Joey at Joylent to test his product. Being that sugar is in everything it’s hard to cut it out, let alone know much you consume in one day without spending hours looking at labels and adding it up. The meal replacements were an easy way to say hey I am getting X amount of sugar intake in one day. It is recommended that you consume less than 34 grams of sugar in a day, take a look at a coke can and see how quickly it is to pass that recommendation. Throughout the experiment at it’s peak, I consumed no more than 38 grams of sugar per day. Before the experiment it was much much more.

The health improvements shown during the 6 month window were astounding. I will explain in detail within my next video on my channel here

I would advise for you to read the book Pure, White and Deadly by John Yudkin, it’s an excellent read.


100% Joylent for 6 Months Results: Full Lab Testing


As always here is a link where you can download what I post in a larger size:



Hey Guys,

I am here to give you guys an update about the second half of The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment. My plan was to use Pulve for the second half which should have begun 1 November 2016. A couple of days ago they pulled out of the project citing bad reasons i.e. they claimed I look ¨unhealthy¨ and ¨starving¨. Let me set the record straight, if I was unhealthy it would have shown in my blood work and my GP who was monitoring me during that portion of the experiment would have pulled me from participating in it. The fact is none of that happened. Let´s get to the truth here; I am here to find out if these meals are scientifically sound. I do not necessarily care too much about marketing their product or how many subscribers are signed up. (from a marketing point of view) I am here to present my findings from a scientific vantage point, not from a sales perspective. I started the channel so Joylent could have something to refer to their customers. Also, it gave a bit more of a personal touch to the experiment. I am aware that I am not an expert video editor, I am studying to become a Food and Nutrition Expert. After asking another meal replacement provider if they wanted to participate he gave me a response of ¨your channel is too little in traffic, we deal with channels who have subscribers in the 10,000 of thousands.¨ This to me says that they only are looking to make sales and do not care about their product regarding providing healthy nutritional alternatives.

With that being said I am moving forward with the second half of the experiment per 1 November 2016. I am making my blend; this has several advantages vs. working with a company.
1. I can adjust the recipe to see fit; this comes in handy since I learned valuable information from the last product I experiment with (Joylent) I can tweak the homemade recipe a bit to see if I get better results.
2. It makes this process (planning, taking, documenting) so much easier; I would not have to deal with whining companies who are solely focused on making sales rather than presenting their product regarding what can be learned through scientific research.

In the future, I plan on launching a pilot study where I will include 40 people using the same methods I am working with now to see if I can notice any similar patterns in a much larger group. I will be using the crowdfunding site to raise funds. They already approved its premise, and I expect to launch it when I finish after the next six months. We (a prominent researcher and I) are working on the protocols now, as with anyone with research experience knows months to plan. If the results of this pilot study are promising, we will launch a much larger. We will put together a premise and submit it again to for crowdfunding.

A special thank you to Joylent, of all the companies I spoke with they were the only ones who were not obsessed with solely launching an experiment for marketing purposes! I will end this section with this, even if this blog space and channel had zero followers I would still continue as I am doing this for anyone who has potential interest. I would like to thank you (all who have followed so far) for watching the progress of this experiment and hope to be able to continue providing these informative tests for you in the future!

Update Second Half of the Experiment

Hello Everyone, I will provide an update tomorrow 11Nov2016. Cheers, Lee


Experiment 2 (homemade shake)

Hypothesis: By reducing my overall sugar consumption further, I will see health improvements in my liver enzymes and blood sugar levels.

Before the experiment, I was consuming over 38 grams of sugars a day (Sucrose and High Fructose Corn Syrup)
During the experiment, I will consume 8 grams of sugars a day (Sucrose and High Fructose Corn Syrup)

Hello everyone, so I have been in the second half of The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment since 7 November 1016.

Here is a link which will show you what and how much I am using of what food source regarding macronutrients, you will see two numbers 100 (which was on the package) and below it another with the number of grams I am using for the experiment. As you can see the total sugar content is very low at exactly 8 grams. Food Source Break Down

Here are some pictures and links to tools of the trade I will be using this time around:



For this second half of The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment I will be testing my homemade shake which is very low in sugars (8 grams a day) for three months. After this experiment is done which is around February 2017, I will begin the Insect vs. AFor this second half of The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment I will be testing my homemade shake which is very low in sugars (8 grams a day) for three months. After this experiment is done which is around February 2017, I will begin the Insect vs. Animal Protein Experiment.

I will be testing the same bodily measurements as with Joylent such as daily blood glucose eight times a day, weight and blood pressure. (I will include the chart here on the blog space every Sunday) Also, I will make more interactive videos, i.e. go into town and interview people about foods and dieting to make videos for my channel.


I had a minor set back, over this past week I developed an allergic reaction to something within the home made the shake. I had to take out each ingredient one at a time to figure out what it was; the culprit was the psyllium husk I was using as a fiber source. I have adjusted the recipe and will begin new starting today 14 November 2016 for uniformity. As with the previous experiment, I will post the stats every Sunday here in the blog space. I am looking forward to seeing what happens when I consume an over all diet which contains around 8 grams of sugars =) a day.


Week 0 and 1 Home Made Shake Daily Testing Results


 I just finished the first week of the homemade shakes, and it was kind of interesting. I did not have nearly as much gas issues with this recipe. Included above is a link which shows the list of macro nutrients I am using. I did notice that I had a stronger craving for foods this time around. It seemed that having less sugar (in the form of sucrose) made my hunger go up. There were several moments when I was borderline ready to fry up an egg, but I resisted. My Fiancee would describe me as being a”grump” throughout the entire week. Overall I felt a bit on edge, throughout the week and stuff that wouldn’t before seemed to bother me. A lot like someone who is quitting cigarettes, that general irritated with life syndrome. In sugars defense, I was quitting caffeine as well. I did so with Joylent but this time around it seemed more intense than previously experienced. My energy levels have been great, and I sleep like a baby.




47 thoughts on “The One Year Meal Replacement Experiment

  1. Very interesting to follow you on this journey Lee,
    Are you convinced that the better focus is due to your change in nutrition?
    I can imagine it also being a psychological effect.


    1. Chop, thanks for the interest. I have considered the psychological effect that this type of food brings. It seems to streamline my way of eating, perhaps I am less distracted when compared to my previous lifestyle. Preparing food takes energy and focus.


  2. If you are bored with the taste variety , try adding myprotein flavdrops. In my opinion they are the best tasting aroma drops on the consumermarket, and they bring your joylent taste variety from 5 to 1000. Have you tried any supplements against the gas issue?

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Felix thanks for the post, that’s an excellent idea regarding how to enhance the taste. I will check that out. I have yet to take any additional supplements. I am waiting until after April 31 2016. I will began experimenting with supplements during the second three month phase. That way I have a “pure” phase.

      A thought is to try curcumin for stomach/gas issues as there is current research that it can help. see for more information.


    1. Natalia, thanks for the interest. Perhaps you should give it a try… it’s been very interesting for me. I have found it to be much more convenient than before. I am now able to take the time I spent preparing food and apply it to other aspects of my life.

      Another follower (Daniele) told me about eatnano. That sounds very interesting that they have a hot meal variant. I will have to give that a try one day.

      My Fiancee will be doing a Joylent trial for a month to see how it goes. As part of it she will make a video, which I will post on my channel. This is good for you to have a female aspect of the lifestyle.


      Lee Primeau


      1. Mostly social things, I live in Spain meeting friends tends to be lunch/dinner. At the office I pretty much drink shakes every day and it wouldn’t be hard to do it full time. I’ve tried, Nano, Joylent, Jake and Mana, I think the best was Mana. Nano is pretty good but I think the sugar levels go down afterwards way to fast, I don’t get hungry but sometimes if I take too long to eat again I feel a little dizzy and that only happens with Nano, the shake, have’t tried the hot thing yet. Another problem is not living alone, I am ok if there’s no real food in front of me :-/

        Liked by 1 person

      2. Ah my neighbor is Spanish, (southern part) he always tells me how much he misses the sunny weather. (Netherlands is not known for being the sunniest of all places) Eating these meals 100% takes discipline and there is always temptations =) I am pretty proud of myself to make it this long although I’ve found that it has gotten a lot easier as time went by. There are still times I miss food, especially if it smells really good. I think these meals biggest downfall are in social situations.


  3. Hey, I am following your experiment with excitement!
    A suggestion/question: Why don’t you try Joylent Sport if you are exercising?
    And can you please upload the graphs bigger?

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Amelie,

      Thanks for the interest, it’s crossed my mind to give Joylent Sport a try. At the moment I include Creatine monohydrate into my shakes. In addition, I am consuming over the 100% daily protein intake at my current rate. These are two things Joylent Sport includes, within it’s ingredients. I will give exercising a try with the current regime and if I do not see successful results will look into Joylent Sport, thanks for the suggestion. =)

      Regarding the graphs, when I save them from Microsoft Excel they are fairly large but for some reason become scaled down after I upload them into wordpress. I will try a few other things to make them larger for you guys.


      Lee Primeau


      1. Thank you! I have a question about your thoughts on the long term effects of this diet. I use Joylent myself, but cannot help but worry/think about possible effects in 10-20 years, if I consumed this for several years now. Do we know the long term hormonal or cancerogenic effects of each ingredient in nutrient powders? Not the whey protein or oatmeal, but for example the synthetic vitamins. Joylent can be okay, or better, to consume in the short term but what about the prolonged use?


      2. Amelie,

        I am sure they have done studies on all ingredients listed within Joylent. I would recommend you visit sites like which post studies on various drugs/ingredients.

        I plan on consuming these meals longer term and undergo medical testing just like I am doing now. After Pulve, I plan on starting the same experiment with two companies which are biological and use more natural ingredients. Which ever company fairs the best in blood testing, I will then pick that one to consume longer term 10+ years.

        I believe that sugar is something we should scrutinize more. I can not say 100% that sugar is not healthy, but by limiting it’s intake over several years I may see positive results. I hope to bring more attention to this by doing a longer term experiment. I personally think synthetic food is not necessarily bad for us, but I do think we are unsure of the all the effects (good and bad) it has on our bodies through longer term use. To error on the safe side, you could always have Joylent for breakfast and lunch and eat a normal type meal for dinner.


  4. Hey Lee,

    if I understood correctly, you started with chrono-nutrition before intermittent fasting. How did you incorporate the two, time-wise?


    1. Hello Fred,

      Thatś an excellent question, thats right. I first began with chrono-nutrition due to my schedule. Before this I never really knew it by a name, my grandmother used to eat this way so I thought it would be cool to give it a try.

      Incorporating the two was rather easy, I stuck with the caloric allotment I mentioned in this weeks post (week 21) and kept it within a 08:00-1700. window. Typically aiming to have my last meal by 1500 if possible.


  5. it is so cool that you did such a great experiment. and i would like to do it by myself too, so if you need participants in your pilot study, i would love to be part of it! and i am very interessted in your own powdered food recipe, because i made one which i really like but i still fancy joylent 🙂


    1. Hello Lanya,

      We are not yet recruiting for the pilot study, (there are many steps to be taken such as getting approval from the SRB). Upon being granted approval you will be the first we contact. =) Thanks for enjoying the experiment, Joylent is a fabulous product!


  6. A small introduction, I started my experiment about two years ago and lost 36KG (from 140KG). I’m refined sugar-free; wheat-free and lowcarb (average between 10~25 gr/d) I’m Microbiome fast5, start eating when I feel the need to, and only eat 5~6 hours after that moment. And try eat mostly only mircobiome foods; protein and fats. I shared my experiment and knowledge in a Facebook group “Darmen met Charme” (its in Dutch)

    Nature wants to include all living things from the same basic material, namely from sugar molecules, amino acids (protein) and fats. All our foods are derived from living things (according to biological definition)

    Thanks to Joylent by sharing your site, I just read your experiment. I’m interesting using a product like Joylent, but have questions with the high amount of carbs. I have the idea that a tablespoon of easy/simple carbs like maltodextrine (or starch), are the same as a table spoon sugar for my body to process.

    Beside Joylent I’m interested about all the other brands in this market at the moment as I can see @blendrunner. So its pity Pulve pulled out, was looking forward the experiment to come what differences are between the both of those two, as you may could have experienced. Looks like Pulve has a better composition, but with only one flavour.

    So I’m still doubting to expand my project by using Joylent or Pulve for about three months, to see what happens to me. In the meantime I will follow your experiment, which is very interesting, also knowing your a nutritional business owner and a dietetic student.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. MGPols,

      I have never heard of an active five-fast lifestyle that is fascinating. Congrats on losing so much weight that is very impressive! In the future, I will perform low carbohydrate experiments as I am curious to see what my blood sugars would yield.

      Yeah, it is a shame that Pulve pulled out, by with every missed opportunity comes another possible opportunity. Deciding to make a homemade shake has a lot of benefits, the most important being that I get to decide how much sugars goes in.

      To answer your question about the sugars, maltodextrin, and our bodies. Maltodextrine is essentially a bunch of glucose molecules linked together. Our bodies (mainly the liver) can break it down very efficiently. Glucose is an excellent fuel source; you can use fats (protein is not as handy) for energy, but it takes longer to yield immediate energy due to the extra steps our bodies have to go through to make energy from fats. There is much debate about table sugar (sucrose) and high fructose corn syrup. There is a belief that they overburden the liver, which can lead to a lot of common metabolic illness that we see today. An essential element the majority of people seem to miss is that you want to ensure you are consuming enough fibers with every meal. There are all different kinds of indigestible grains, take a look into insoluble vs. soluble, etc. Joylent and others meal shakes have the right idea in mind being that they include enough fibers within the meal itself. To include enough dietary fibers within your meal would help negate the impact of blood sugar spikes.

      I have a keen interest in intermittent fasting, and I include this type of lifestyle within my daily routine. I use the 16 hours fast, 8-hour eating window method. In my opinion, I do not feel our bodies have fully acclimated to our current environment. Meaning that food is an abundance, and we have to do little work regarding physical power to obtain it.


      1. (Sorry, even geen engels)

        Inmiddels heb ik uiteindelijk besloten er zelf ook aan te beginnen en afgelopen week zowel Joylent als Pulve bestelt om te gaan uitproberen. Vooralsnog blijf ik het combineren met mijn eigen fast5 en microbioom eetpatroon. Wat inhoudt dat ik een shake per dag ga gebruiken en afhankelijk van behoefte eventueel twee.

        Ik ben eergisteren gestart met het gebruik van Joylent en gisteren heb ik Pulve gebruikt.

        Ik heb intussen beide leverancier wat vragen gesteld, want ik heb al verschillen ontdekt waar ikzelf mijn vinger nog niet achter krijg, dus hopelijk kunnen ze mij ermee helpen.

        Na wat antwoorden te hebben gehad, kom ik vooralsnog met de volgende conclusie:

        Ik heb de beleving dat Pulve een beter product is dan Joylent, alhoewel ik daarvoor nog tot in detail beide wil gaan vergelijken. Maar op eerste oog is Pulve wel in het voordeel, mede gezien het gebruik van natuurlijke arabica gum (verdikkingsmiddel) minder poeder nodig hebt om meteen een goeie shake te hebben wat betreft dikte en lekkerder drinkt. Daarbij zit erbij Pulve iets in, lijkt wel iets van gebroken lijnzaad of zo iets. Daartegenin heeft Pulve als nadeel de eenzijdige smaak, en per maaltijd toch ruim 60~70 eurocent duurder zijn.

        Dus ben zeer blij dat ik beide heb besteld en zo kan variëren.

        Daarnaast heb ik nog wel wat vraagtekens wat betreft voedingsmiddelen, het blijft tenslotte een shake die je drinkt en niet iets wat je daadwerkelijk eet en kauwt. Gezien de mate van energie die het mijn lichaam geeft zal het wel prima zijn, maar heb een betere beleving vol te zijn van mijn microbioom salade, dan van de shake.

        Dus daarin wil mijzelf nog graag gaan verdiepen in hoeverre ik iets wel/niet nodig zal hebben, wordt zeker nog vervolgd….

        Liked by 1 person

      2. MGPols, I am not fully fluent in Dutch yet so I will respond in English. I am able to read Dutch quite well, I can not personally speak for Pulve as I was unable to try their product. The agar gum (verdikkingsmiddel) came in handy with the Joylent when I went to make muffins out of them. I will read up on your eigen fast5 en microbioom diet, sounds quite interesting.


      3. If you like to follow me, the best way is to invite yourself to my FB group link from my 1st react. You also can practice your dutch 😉


    1. I drank some Soylent v.2.0 today with Trident Gum. The gum turned to liquidy mush at the end of my drink. I’m wondering if you had a similar experience with Joylent.


      1. Jin, when I was a teenager I used to chew Trident gum quite a lot. I did notice that the softer chewing gums were more likely to digest fully within my mouth more quickly. My guess was that this was from the Amylase (which is an enzyme within our saliva that catalyzes starch into sugars) in our mouths doing its job and beginning the digestion process. If I chew gum, it’s the hard outer/inner shell type. Those types are more resistant to the Amylase within our mouths and usually stay whole throughout the chewing process.


    2. Hello, Jin, the first time I tried Joylent and chewing gum it did become very soft. After that point, I would eat/drink the Joylent and when finished would chew gum. By chewing the gum after eating, it seemed to rectify the problem. Before turning them into muffins, by chewing gum after it was a way I could get my jaws moving.


    1. No problem, Jin. I chewed the gum for about five minutes after I ate Joylent. Before chewing I sipped and swirled my mouth with some water to clear up the leftover bits. Another tip for you would be to purchase one of those cheap tongue scrapers. The Joylent kind of sticks to your tongue and those things help get it off.


    1. Jin, I noticed that softer gum is more easily broken down by the saliva within our mouth. I do not think it would be an issue to chew soft gum after Joylent. I chewed it as soon as I was done with the Joylent to stimulate the chewing process. I would chew it for about 5 minutes.


    1. Gene, Yes you are correct. I was able to post the blood results for the end of the experiment. I have been a little busy with other endeavours and will post an official ending here shortly. Thanks for bringing that up.


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